Multiple endocrine neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) is a congenital thyroid cancer, caused in most cases by a mutation in the RET proto-oncogene (10q11.2).
MEN2 is a rare disease (affecting about one to nine in a hundred thousand (1–9/100,000)). MEN2 has two subtypes:
multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A;
multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B.
In turn, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A has several variants:
MEN2A with CLA (Cutaneous lichen amyloidosis);
MEN2A with Hirschsprung’s disease;
FMTC, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.
MEN2A is more common than MEN2B. MEN2A is diagnosed in approximately 95% of cases.
MEN2 has autosomal dominant heredity, which means that a mutation in one of the chromosomes is sufficient for the disease to manifest. To determine the genetic causes of the disease, the coding part of the RET gene is read and sequenced. In very rare cases, the genetic cause (mutation) of MEN2 may be in another gene, not the RET gene; then a gene panel test must be performed.
Types of molecular testing:
SIA GenEra offers Sanger sequencing of coding parts of the RET gene (exons and their splicing sites) done in the following manner:
first stage — the reading (sequencing) of the part of the RET gene where mutations are more common (exons: 10 to 16);
second stage — if no mutations are found on the first stage, the remaining RET gene exons are sequenced, or, for the reasons of economy, it is recommended to perform a gene panel analysis.
With a doctor’s referral (for a complete list, see the “Prices”) section) medical DNA tests (except for the prenatal NIPT “Panorama” test for pregnant women) are paid for by the NHS. Important! The NHS only pays for the test if the referral is issued as part of an NHS-paid visit, and the doctor has a contract with the NHS. Referrals issued during a paid visit will not be valid. Quotas are available.
The sample for DNA testing can be submitted at any branch of our partner - Centrālajā laboratorijā.
You can also order all offered DNA tests at full price. Remote contactless testing is available for both paid and NHS-referred tests. All medical DNA tests can be performed remotely, except for tests on pregnant women, where a blood sample must be collected.