Rhesus factor (RhD) DNA test in men


Changes in service availability!

Currently, due to changes in service availability, SIA GenEra does not provide rhesus factor (RhD) DNA testing for men. The new service is under development.

However, if you or your patient needs or is interested in taking this test, contact us and we will arrange it in another laboratory. Please write  info@genera.lv or call 26267833!

What is rhesus factor (RhD)?

What is rhesus factor (RhD)?

Rhesus factor depends on the presence or absence of a protein—Rhesus D antigen (RhD)—on the surface of erythrocytes (red blood cells). If rhesus D antigen is present on the surface of erythrocytes, the person is rhesus positive: RhD+, but if there is no rhesus D antigen, the person is rhesus negative: RhD-.

What determines if a person is rhesus positive or negative?

The human rhesus factor is determined by the gene RHD, the product of which is a protein: the RhD antigen. Humans have two sets of chromosomes: one inherited from their mother and one from their father, meaning that each of our cells has two copies of the RHD gene, the so-called alleles. If both copies function and produce the RhD antigen, the human is rhesus positive-homozygous, whereas if only one copy is active: rhesus positive-heterozygous. In rhesus-negative people, both RHD alleles of the gene are non-functional, and the RhD antigen is not produced or is inactive.

What is rhesus factor incompatibility?

Rhesus factor incompatibility occurs when a rhesus-negative person, who does not have the rhesus D antigen, receives erythrocytes of rhesus-positive blood with the rhesus D antigen.  As a result, the rhesus D antigen is recognized as a foreign body, and antibodies are formed against it.

Rhesus factor incompatibility can lead to complications both after a blood transfusion and during pregnancy. During pregnancy, rhesus incompatibility may occur when the woman is rhesus-negative, but the biological father of the unborn child is rhesus-positive: there is a possibility that the foetus may be rhesus-positive, resulting in antibodies to the foetal antigen RhD in the pregnant woman’s blood.

During the first pregnancy, antibodies are rare and the baby is usually healthy. The risk of complications increases with each subsequent pregnancy. Rhesus antibodies interfere with foetal development, may lead to premature birth or neonatal haemolytic disease.

Rēzus faktora (RhD) statusa DNS tests vīriešiem

What is the probability that the foetus could be rhesus positive if the DNA status of the father’s rhesus factor (RhD) (homozygous or heterozygous) is known?

If the father of the unborn child is homozygous (both the RHD alleles of the gene are functional), then the foetus will definitely be rhesus positive. It also means that all children of this man will be rhesus positive — whether the child’s mother is rhesus positive or not. If in this case the pregnant woman is rhesus negative, she will need additional treatment.
If the father of the unborn child is heterozygous (one of his two RHD alleles is functional), there is a 50% chance that the foetus may be rhesus positive and a 50% chance that the rhesus factor is negative. In such cases, it would be advisable for a rhesus-negative woman to check the rhesus status of the foetus (positive or negative) during each pregnancy.

In which cases rhesus-positive men should have a rhesus factor (RhD) DNA test?

If the female partner is rhesus negative and the male partner is rhesus positive. With this test, it is possible to determine whether the planned children will be 100% rhesus positive or be rhesus negative with a likelihood of 50%.

Test description.

Rhesus factor testing for men is a completely safe procedure. For the purposes of the test, a swab from the oral mucosa, the so-called “saliva sample”, or a blood sample from a peripheral vein is collected. The DNA test for rhesus factor (RhD) status in men involves the relative quantification of two fragments of the RHD gene.


With a doctor’s referral (for a complete list, see the “Prices”) section) medical DNA tests (except for the prenatal NIPT “Panorama” test for pregnant women) are paid for by the NHS. Important! The NHS only pays for the test if the referral is issued as part of an NHS-paid visit, and the doctor has a contract with the NHS. Referrals issued during a paid visit will not be valid. Quotas are available.


The sample for DNA testing can be submitted at any branch of our partner - Centrālajā laboratorijā.


You can also order all offered DNA tests at full price. Remote contactless testing is available for both paid and NHS-referred tests. All medical DNA tests can be performed remotely, except for tests on pregnant women, where a blood sample must be collected. 

I have a referral and I want to collect and submit sample remotely

Do you have questions about testing opportunities?

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